Rice is a staple diet of the country after wheat. India occupies the second position in the world after China in terms of rice production and accounts for 20% of the world’s total production. The amount of hectares in India under rice cultivation is as high as 400 lakh hectares in 20 states. India is also the largest exporter of rice in the world crossing 100 million tonnes in the year 2015. The top ten rice producing states in the country account for about 80% of the country’s total production.
The effect of green revolution drastically enhanced rice cultivation in the country and the adoption of modern methods have also contributed to the increased yield.
Karnataka is a southern Indian state and is more widely known for its capital city Bengaluru which has become an IT hub of the country. In terms of rice production, the state has a share of 3% of the total production in the country. The state has about 14 lakh hectares of land under rice cultivation. Mysore, Bellary, Coorg, Belgaum, Udupi and Tumkur are some of the main regions in the state where rice is cultivated. The average rice production in the state is 2700 kg per hectare. Total rice production by the state in the last financial year was 41.68 lakh tonnes.
Rice is the staple food of the people of this state and one of its main agricultural products. The amount of land under rice cultivation in the state stands at 25 lakh hectares. Assam receives good rainfall and the climatic conditions also provide a conducive environment for rice cultivation. The varieties of rice produced in Assam include Bora, Chokuwa and Joha. The total production of rice in the state was 48.18 lakh tonnes in the previous financial year.
Rice is a major crop of the state. This can be gauged from the fact that more than 65% of the total cultivated area of the state is under rice cultivation. Odisha accounts for about 5% of the total rice production in India. Some of the major rice growing areas in the state include Ganjam, Mayurbhanj, Sundargarh, Bargarh and Kalahandi. Odisha produced 60.08 lakh tonnes of rice in the last financial year.
Chhatisgarh accounts for more than 5% of the total rice production in the country. The state has about 37 lakh hectares of land under rice cultivation. Some varieties of rice grown in state include Vandana, Kranti, Aditya, Tulsi and Abhaya. Rice is the most important crop of the state due to its fertile soil which is extremely favourable for the growth of this crop. The state has been increasing its production every year. The total production stood at 64.28 lakh tonnes in the last financial year.
Bihar is one of the main agricultural states of the country by virtue of its fertile soil, stable climate and abundant vegetation. Rice cultivation is carried out in more than 33 lakh hectares of land. The state has witnessed a spurt in production in the recent years. This can be attributed to the increasing adoption of modern agricultural methods by the farmers and several government initiatives. Bihar is sixth in this list with a production of 72.68 lakh tonnes in the last financial year.
5. Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu has a 7% share in the total rice production of the country. The state has 19 lakh hectares of land under rice cultivation. In terms of per hectare production, Tamil Nadu is right at the top among all the states with a staggeringly high number of 3900 kg. This is the reason why the state, despite having lesser land under rice cultivation, is placed fifth in the country in terms of production. Tamil Nadu produced 75.85 lakh tonnes of rice during the last financial year.
Punjab is a leading producer of rice beside wheat in the country. Punjab is mostly identified with wheat production in India, but it is also the fourth largest producer of rice in the country. Punjab has more than 28 lakh hectares of land under rice cultivation and accounts for 10% of the total rice produced in the country. The popular variety of rice named Basmati is also widely grown in the state. Punjab produced 107.82 lakh tonnes of rice in the last financial year.
3. Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh has a share of 12% in the total production of rice in India. The state, with more than 3100 kg/hectare yield, is also among the states with the highest yields. Kavya, Sannalu, Pushkala, Swarna and Tikkana are some of the varieties of rice grown in the state. It is third in the list with a production of 130 lakh tonnes in the last financial year.
2. Uttar Pradesh
The largest state in India has 59 lakh hectares of land under rice cultivation. U.P. accounts for a whopping 15% of the country’s total rice output. The rice yield of the state is 2300 kg/hectare. With a production of 142.22 lakh tonnes in the last financial year, U.P is second in this list.
1. West Bengal
West Bengal is called the rice granary of India. Rice is also the staple food of its native population. The state has 50% of its arable land under rice cultivation which comes to about 50 lakh hectares. West Bengal is the largest producer of rice in India with a production of 148.05 lakh tonnes in the last financial year.
These top ten states are the major contributors in making India the second largest producer of rice in the world.