Cotton is a very important crop and has a variety of uses all over the world. Cotton is used in the textile industry, garment manufacturing industry and many other sectors. India is the second largest producer of cotton in the world. The total area under cotton cultivation in the country is more than 125 lakh hectares. In the year 2014-15, India reached the milestone of producing more than 400 lakh bales. Cotton is produced in over 12 states of the country. The Indian climatic conditions are conducive for the growth of cotton and has contributed in making the country second only to China in the world in terms of cotton production.
These are the top ten largest cotton producing states of India.
10. Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu accounts for 6% of the total cotton produced in the country. Cotton is grown in more than 70,000 thousand hectares of land in the state. Some of the major cotton producing districts of the state includes Madurai, Ramanathapuram, Coimbatore, Vellalur, Tiruchirapalli and Salem. Tamil Nadu also holds the distinction for the highest yield of cotton in the country with 1214 kg of cotton produced per hectare. Tamil Nadu is tenth in the country with a production of 5 lakh bales of cotton.
Punjab’s textile and clothing industry is heavily dependent on cotton which has led to an increased emphasis on cotton production by the government. Currently, Punjab is at the ninth position in the country with a production of 14 lakh bales of cotton. The total area under cotton cultivation stands at 7.56 lakh hectares. The major cotton producing districts of the state are Ludhiana, Bhatinda, Moga, Faridkot, Sangrur and Mansa.
Rajasthan has a share of 4% of the total cotton produced in India. The total area in the state under cotton cultivation is more than 4 lakh hectares. The major cotton producing districts of the state are Ajmer, Hanumangarh, Jhalawar, Ganganagar and Bhilwara. Cotton industry forms a major constituent of the state’s economy. The cotton yield of the state has risen significantly in the recent years. The state’s output enhanced from 2 lakh bales in 2007 -08 to 9 lakh bales in 2012-13. Currently, the state’s total production stands at 17 lakh bales of cotton.
7. Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh has a well established textile and clothing industry which needs cotton as one of the major raw materials. The state has brought more than 5 lakh hectares of land under cotton cultivation. Ratlam, Bhopal, Dewas, Nimar and Shajapur are the major cotton producing centers in the state. Madhya Pradesh is also engaged in the export of its cotton to other states. With a production of 18 lakh bales of cotton, Madhya Pradesh is seventh in India.
Haryana is a leading agricultural state in the country. In terms of cotton production, the state has a share of 6% of the total output of the country. 6 lakh hectares of land in the state are under cotton cultivation with a total yield of 665 kg per hectare. The cotton plantations in the state are reputed to be very efficient and organized. At present, Haryana is sixth in the country with a total production of 25 lakh bales of cotton.
5. Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh is fifth in the country in terms of cotton production with a total output of 27 lakh bales. Undivided Andhra Pradesh was third in the country but after the Telangana state was carved out of it, the remaining state of Andhra Pradesh slipped in the ranking. The major cotton producing districts of the state are Guntur, Anantapur, Prakasam and Kurnool. Andhra Pradesh is still one of the main cotton producing states in India.
Karnataka has a significant share of 7% of the country’s annual production of cotton. The total area under cotton cultivation in the state is above 7.5 lakh hectares of land. The North Karnataka plateau is the major region of cotton production owing to the fertile soil and favourable climatic conditions. Dharwad, Bellary, Belgaum and Gulbarga constitute the major cotton producing districts of the state. Karnataka is fourth in the nation with a production of 28 lakh bales of cotton.
Telangana is a new state that was carved out of Andhra Pradesh in the year 2014. This is mainly an agricultural state with more than 16 lakh hectares of land under cotton cultivation. The newly formed state is already occupying the third position in the country in terms of cotton production. The total production of cotton by Telangana is 50 lakh bales.
Maharashtra is second largest cotton producing state in India. The cotton grown in Maharashtra is famous for its magnificent quality. The total area of the state under cotton cultivation is 41 lakh hectares of land which is the highest in India. The cotton yield of the state is 345 kg per hectare. The major cotton growing regions of the state are Vidarbha, Marathwada, Amravati, Yavatmal, Wardha and Akola. Maharashtra produces 85 lakh bales of cotton.
Gujarat is the country’s largest producer of cotton. Gujarat accounts for a staggering 31% of the country’s total cotton output. The state has about 30 lakh hectares of land under cotton cultivation. The presence of black soil and an annual rainfall of 80-100 cm along with advanced agricultural methods have made the state a clear leader in cotton production. Ahmedabad, Panchmahal, Mehsana, Vadodra, Bharuch and Surendemagar are the major cotton producing regions of the state. The total cotton production of the state is 125 lakh bales.
The booming cotton production in the country has contributed in making the Indian clothing and textile industry a major success.